Why is preplanning important to excavation work ??
No matter how many trenching, shoring, and backfilling jobs an employer has done in the past, it is important to approach each new job with care and preparation. Many on-the-job incidents results from inadequate initial planing. Waiting until after the work starts to correct mistakes in shoring or sloping slows down the operation, adds to the cost of the project, and makes a cave - in or other excavation failure more likely.
Some of the compliance methods permitted under the Excavation standards require a competent person to classify soil and rock deposits as:
■ Stable rock ■ Type A soil ■ Type B soil ■ Type C soil.
Soil Classification. Stable Rock – Natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed.
- Type A – Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tons per square foot (tsf) (144 kPa) or greater. Examples include: clay, silty clay, sandy clay, and clay loam. Certain conditions preclude soil from being classified as Type A. For example, no soil is Type A if it is fissured or has been previously disturbed.
- Type B – Includes cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) but less than 1.5 tsf (144 kPa) and granular cohesionless soils (such as angular gravel, similar to crushed rock, silt, silt loam, sandy loam, and, in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy clay loam).
- Type C – Cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) or less, granular soils (including gravel, sand, and loamy sand), submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping, submerged rock that is not stable, or material in a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or with a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or steeper.
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Steel materials are occasionally used in building construction for the support of roofs and floors.
Additions increase the square footage or external dimensions of a building. They can be divided into lateral additions and vertical additions.
Eaque ipsa quae ab illo inve ntore veritatis et architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicaboemo enim
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This section describes constructing sidewalks, loading zones, safety islands, and steps including landings, of concrete, with or without reinforcement.
Exterior wall coverings, along with the roofing, flashings, windows and doors, are designed to provide a weather-resistive barrier that separates the interior of the structure from the elements.
These design sheets are guidelines for a basic, single level decks and porches, if a spa or hot tub or other special use is intended, seek the help of a design professional.
This handout mainly addresses the requirements for asphalt and mineral surfaced roll roofing. Wood shingles, wood shakes, and steel shingles (minimum 26 gauge) are also permitted.
Sidewalks, yards and areaways are among the defining characteristics of a New York City landmark or historic district. DOT approval required for replacing sidewalks.
With the development of the new design aesthetics of Art Deco, Art Moderne, and Stream lined Modernism, structural glass reached its greatest popularity.